Albrecht Durer- Prominent German Northern Renaissance artist who emphasized the use of perspective. Engraved The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.
Desiderius Erasmus- Catholic Church reformer who tried to reform Church from within. Father of Christian Humanism. Wrote In Praise of Folly and Handbook of the Christian Soldier. Critiqued Scholasticism and Church practices such as pluralism and corruption.
Christian Humanism- Form of humanism associated with the Northern Renaissance. Emphasized more personal study of the Bible and reform within the Church structure. Erasmus is considered the greatest contributor.
Great Schism- Split in Papal authority during the 14th century. Led to a pope in France as well as Rome after Pope Clement V was brought to Avignon by Philip IV of France. Caused disillusionment and calls for reform within the Church.
John Wyclif- English reformer in the 14th Century. De-emphasized rituals and extravagance within the Church, and stressed the role of faith and study of the scriptures. His reforms were adopted by the Lollard Knights, but never gained popular support.
Conciliarism- Idea of separating Church power between the clergy and the pope. Arose in response to the Great Schism. Discussed during the Council of Constance. Led to reduced Papal authority until Pope Pius II abolished it.
Indulgences- Documents sold by the Church to reduce the time one’s soul spent in Purgatory. Promoted by Tetzel. Attacked by Erasmus and Luther, they were one of the main things sparking calls for reform.
Martin Luther- German Monk who started a successful reform movement within the Catholic Church. Emphasized salvation by faith alone and condemned the lavishness of the clergy. Codified his beliefs in his attack on indulgences, The 95 Theses.
95 Theses- Document written by Martin Luther. Attacked the theoretical underpinnings of the papal granting of indulgences. Helped spread reform doctrine with the help of the printing press.
Edict of Worms- Agreement between Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Pope Leo X condemning Luther’s doctrine. Declared him a heretic and forbade him from preaching, although he was protected by Frederick the Wise.
German Peasants’ Revolt- German revolt by peasants against their lords in the 16th century which was condemned by Martin Luther. Showed the fact that he was, although a reformer, very socially conservative.
Protestants- Any sect of Christianity “protesting” the Catholic Church. First popular protestant movement was Lutheranism, which was followed by others such as Calvinism. Led to religious wars and disagreements between Catholics and Protestants for centuries to come.
Charles V- Holy Roman Emperor during the 16th century. Opposed Lutheranism’s spread, but was caught up fighting the Ottomans, so he could not intervene. Eventually signed the Peace of Augsburg, granting Lutherans religious toleration.
Schmalkaldic League- League of Northern European Lutheran states. Defeated in battle by Charles V’s army.
Peace of Augsburg- Religious settlement in the German states between Charles V and the Lutherans. Religion of ruler is religion of state. Reduced Emperor’s authority in the H.R.E.
Huldrych Zwingli- Reformer during the 16th century. Preached salvation through faith alone. Engaged in the Sacramentarian Controversy with Martin Luther.
Sacramentarian Controversy- Disagreement between Luther and Zwingli over the ceremony of the Eucharist. Luther believed in consubstantiation, and Zwingli believed communion was a symbol. First disagreement between Protestant forces.
Anabaptists- Radical group of Zwinglians. Formed communities in Switzerland and southern Germany. Crushed by catholic and Protestant forces. Condemned at the Diet of Speyer.
Jean Calvin- French religious reformer. Believed in predestination. Wrote Institutes of the Christian Religion. Began the Calvinist church. Became popular in Switzerland, the Netherlands, and France. Granted freedom in the Peace of Westphalia.
Predestination- The doctrine of Calvinists, originally proposed by Calvin. This doctrine rejected the necessity of good works to achieve salvation and started the Protestant work ethic, as wealth was a sign of being chosen for salvation.
Henry VIII- King of England, and religious conservative who condemned Luther with support from the pope. However, the pope would not let him divorce his wife, so he passed the Act of Supremacy, proclaiming him the “head of the Church of England.” Created the Protestant group Anglicanism.
Act of Supremacy- Issued by Henry VIII, it proclaimed the king “supreme head of the Church of England.” Reforms brought the clergy under control of the state, and created the Protestant group Anglicanism.
Catholic Reformation- Response to the Protestant Reformation. Main contributors were the Council of Trent, Ignatius Loyola and the Jesuits, the Ursaline Nuns, and the Baroque art style. Re-established the supremacy of the pope and the traditional beliefs of the Church.
Ignatius Loyola- One of the primary contributors of the Counter Reformation. Led the Jesuits, who educated kids into joining Catholicism and led an army to fight Protestants. Wrote Spiritual Exercises.
Council of Trent- Met in an attempt to reform some church doctrine, although most present practices were simply reaffirmed, including authority of the pope, the seven sacraments, and the presence of Christ in eucharist. Indulgences were admitted to have been subject to abuse however, and pluralism was abolished.
Baroque- Complemented the Catholic Reformation. Flamboyant, extravagant, and very religious. Example is The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa by Bernini.
Bernini- Venetian sculptor of the Baroque period. Sought to communicate the intensity of religious experience. Example is his sculpture The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa.
Printing Press- Invented by Guttenberg. Helped the Reformation diffuse across lands. Allowed the Bible to become more easily accessible, and thus encouraged more personal reading of the scriptures.
Hanseatic League- Economic alliance of trading cities and their merchant guilds that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe. The League was created to protect commercial interests and privileges granted by foreign rulers in cities and countries the merchants visited. The Hanseatic cities had their own legal system and furnished their own protection and mutual aid. The capital was Lubeck.
Pluralism-The holding of several benefices, or church offices. Banned during the Council of Trent.
Simony-The selling of church offices. One of the policies opposed by Martin Luther.
Theocracy-A community, such as Calvin's Geneva, in which the state is subordinate to the church.
Usury-The practice of lending money for interest. Called heresy by the Church.
Sir Thomas More- Renaissance humanist and chancellor of England, executed by Henry VIII for his unwillingness to recognize publicly his king as Supreme Head of the church and clergy of England.
Nepotism-The practice of rewarding relatives with church positions.
Brethren of the Common Life-Pious laypeople In sixteenth-century Holland who Initiated a religious revival in their model of Christian living.
Index-A list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read. Many Protestant works were on this list.
Inquisition-A religious committee of six Roman cardinals that tried heretics and punished the guilty by imprisonment and execution.