Bills of Exchange – Changed the use of gold to paper.
Dutch East India Company – Dutch chartered company for Asia, ended in bankruptcy. Trade
Price Revolution – The price of living is more than the salary. Inflation
Isabella of Castile – Married Ferdinand, united Spain, new monarch, Spanish inquisition
Ferdinand of Aragon – Married Isabella, united Spain, new monarch, Spanish Inquisition
Potosi – Silver mine in Peru, brought wealth to Spain. Caused the Price Revolution and because of the great amount of silver brought to the old world it made gold the rarest and most valuable of metals.
Philip II – Spanish King, lost the Spanish Armada, devout catholic, built the Escorial, Created the Council of Blood--Netherlands
Escorial (Palace) – Residence of King of Spain, monastery, Phillip II,
Battle of Lepanto – 1751, Holy League defeats Ottoman Empire, last major religious maritime battle
Henry VIII – King of England, separated from the catholic faith, created the Anglican Church, ‘‘defender of faith’’. Father of
Book of Common Prayer – 1549, Anglican Church prayer book, English Reformation, republished 1559, mandated to be used by Elizabeth I.
Puritanism – Extreme English Protestants, advocated purity of worship & doctrine, separatist
Enclosure Movement –16th century. Public land is closed off for private use. Promoted textile manufacturing
Sir Thomas Gresham – Financial entrepreneur of England, helped earn credit for the merchants. Gave idea to expand in the Americas
Poor Laws – Welfare laws in England & Wales
William Shakespeare – Writer, actor, northern renaissance, Lord Chamberlain’s man.
Dutch Revolt - Low countries vs. Spain (Catholics), ended with the Treaty of Munster and created the independent Dutch republic
Council of Blood - Netherlands, Duke of Alva, Spanish Inquisition. Creted by Philip II. Killed anyone against Roman Catholicism
Grandees - Spanish nobility
Don Quixote - Book by Miguel de La Cervantes, Spaniard. Most influential book during the Spanish Golden Age
Treaty of Munster - Spain & Dutch; led to creation of independence of the Dutch. Part of the Peace of Westphalia
Sir Thomas More - English lawyer, important minister of Henry VIII who would not side with the king in the matter of his divorce. Saw himself as a “true, devout Catholic. Wrote the book Utopia
39Articles - English, defining statements of the Anglican Church,
Act of Supremacy - A document that labeled King Henry VIII as the Superme Head of the Anglican Church
Gustavus Adolphus (1594-1632) - Swedish Lutheran who won victories for the German Protestants in the Thirty Years War and lost his life in one of the battles
Duke of Alva (1508-1582 - Military leader sent by Philip n to pacify the Low Countries.
Armada (1588) - Spanish vessels defeated in the English Channel by an English fleet, thus preventing Philip II's invasion of England.
Vasco de Balboa-First European to reach the Pacific Ocean, 1513.
Catherine de Medici (1547-1589 - The wife of Henry II (1547-1559) of France, who exercised political influence after the death of her husband and during the rule of her weak sons.
Christopher Columbus-First European to sail to the West Indies, 1492.
Concordat of Bologna (1516 - Treaty under which the French Crown recognized the supremacy of the pope over a council and obtained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots.
Fernando Cortez-Conqueror of the Aztecs, 1519-1521.
Defenestration of Prague-The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War.
Bartholomew Diaz-First European to reach the southern tip of Africa, 14871488.
Dutch East India Company-Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
Edict of Nantes (1598) - The edict of Henry IV that granted Huguenots the rights of public worship and religious toleration in France.
Elizabeth I (1558-1603) - Protestant ruler of England who helped stabilize religious tensions by subordinating theological issues to political considerations.
Prince Henry the Navigator-Sponsor of voyages along West African coasts, 1418.
Henry IV (1589-1610) - Formerly Henry of Navarre; ascended the French throne as a convert to Catholicism. Survived St. Bartholomew Day, signed Edict of Nantes, quoted as saying "Paris is worth a mass."
Ferdinand Magellan-Circumnavigator of the globe, 1519-1522.
Peace of Westphalia (1648) - The treaty ending the Thirty Years' War in Germany; it allowed each prince-whether Lutheran, Catholic, or Calvinist-to choose the established creed of his territory.
Philip II (1556-1598) - Son and successor to Charles V, ruling Spain and the Low Countries.
Francisco Pizarro- Conqueror of Peru, 1532-1533.
St. Bartholomew’s Day (August 24, 1572) - Catholic attack on Calvinists on the marriage day of Margaret of Valois to Henry of Navarre (later Henry IV).
Prince William of Orange (1572-1584 - Leader of the seventeen provinces of the Netherlands.
Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) Minister to Louis XIII. His three point plan (1. Break the power of the nobility, 2. Humble the House of Austria, 3. Control the Protestants) helped to send France on the road to absolute monarchy.